The most common materials for insulating flat and shallow pitched roofs are PIR, rock wool and EPS.
PIR has a higher insulation value than EPS and rock wool. This type is used in most roofs in the Netherlands, due to its limited thickness and excellent compressive strength.
Rock wool is the most fire-resistant insulation material. The drawbacks of rock wool are that it does not insulate as well and is heavier. A sturdier structure is required to achieve the same insulation value as PIR insulation.
EPS is often a cheaper alternative to PIR and rock wool insulation. As this material has a lower insulation value than PIR, two layers are often installed nowadays. This is necessary to achieve the standard Rc value of 6.0 m2K/W. EPS is the least fire resistant of the above three insulation types.
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